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Uber Drivers Aren't Employees, But They Have a Retirement Plan
"They may not have a 401(k) plan, but drivers working through Uber Technologies Inc.'s platform will soon be able to open a retirement account right in the app.... While fighting a pitched court battle to prevent drivers from being classified as employees, Uber has simultaneously joined forces with Betterment LLC ... to offer them IRAs.... [T]he option will be fee-free for the first year." (Bloomberg)
Why You Should Do An IRA Rollover When You Leave Your Job
"If you keep your money in an old employer's 401(k) plan, you will continue to be limited to the 10 to 15 funds it has selected for you. These funds may not be top-performing funds, and they may have higher-than-average fees.... In many 401(k) plans, roughly half of the options available are target-date funds, which can come with extra fees." (NerdWallet, via Nasdaq)
Advisors Cry Foul Over State Mandated Auto-IRAs
"In some states, the government is positioned to play the role of financial advisor within state administered auto-IRA programs and it's not just trade associations that are concerned. Financial advisors question what a state run automatic-IRA retirement plan might turn into in the long run." (
Qualified Charitable Distributions Can Ease the Tax Pain of RMDs
"Non-itemizers will get a tax benefit of reduced AGI from a donation that they otherwise wouldn't deduct. Itemizers will forgo the charitable deduction but may benefit from a lower AGI; QCDs might reduce the bite of the itemized deduction phase-out for high-income clients[.]" (On Wall Street)
DOL's Fiduciary Rule Poses New Litigation Threat to IRA Advice
"[P]laintiffs' lawyers and the courts have acknowledged that seemingly small differentials between share classes can have a meaningful impact on prospective-retirees' savings. The lesson to fiduciaries is that no fiduciary decision is insignificant and decisions should be reevaluated regularly as the clients' needs change.... Applying general best practices isn't enough -- advisors must have a holistic approach and take a look at their client's unique circumstances to determine any particular or customized needs." (Manning & Napier)
[Guidance Overview] Interesting Angles on the DOL's Fiduciary Rule, Part 15
"Since a pure level fee, or non-conflicted, adviser won't commit a prohibited transaction and therefore won't need an exemption, that adviser will not be bound by the best interest standard for investment advice to individual IRAs. Instead, the adviser will only be subject to the conduct standards in the securities laws.... The biggest [exception] is a recommendation to a plan participant to take a distribution and roll over to an IRA with the adviser." (
Rolling Over a 401(k) Distribution Has Potential Pitfalls
"If you can leave your money in the 401(k), it might make sense to do so. For example, your 401(k) plan might have an excellent investment choice that you cannot buy in your IRA. Or, your new employer might have a 401(k) plan with excellent investment choices and options that you will be able to roll your old 401(k) into. However, your IRA might have more flexible distribution and investment options." (Union Leader)
Clear Link Between Traditional IRAs and Rollovers
"Two new reports published by the Investment Company Institute (ICI) demonstrate that withdrawal activity is lower, equity holdings are higher, and investors tend to be younger in Roth [IRAs] than in traditional IRAs.... [At] year-end 2014, 31% of Roth IRA investors were younger than 40, compared with just 15% of traditional IRA investors." (planadviser)
Traditional IRA Investors Activity, 2007-2014 (PDF)
76 pages. "In tax year 2014, 8.9 percent of traditional IRA investors contributed to their traditional IRAs, and nearly half of traditional IRA investors who did so contributed at the legal limit ... Withdrawal activity is rare among younger traditional IRA investors and overall, fewer than one in four traditional IRA investors took withdrawals in 2014.... In 2014, about seven in 10 new traditional IRAs received rollovers." (Investment Company Institute [ICI])
Roth IRA Investors Activity, 2007-2014 (PDF)
88 pages. "In any given year, more than three in 10 Roth IRA investors contribute to their Roth IRAs. On average, in recent years, estimates suggest that about $18 billion of contributions flowed into Roth IRAs per year.... In 2010, more than 5 percent of Roth IRA investors made conversions, up from less than 2 percent in recent prior years. Between 2011 and 2014, Roth conversion activity declined again, to about 2.6 percent ... Four percent of Roth IRA investors took withdrawals in 2014." (Investment Company Institute [ICI])
Exceptions to the Pro Rata Rule for IRA Distributions
"Distributions that are not subject to the pro-rata rule include: [1] Qualified Charitable Distributions (QCDs) ... [2] Qualified HSA Funding Distributions (QHFDs) ... [3] Rollovers to Company Plans ... You can only fund each of these distribution with the taxable part of your IRA." (Slott Report)
[Opinion] Final DOL Fiduciary Rule Is Likely to Spawn More Litigation Against Financial Advisers
"While the extent of the change is obvious, its worth asking whether the change is for the good or not ... [A recent] article on rollovers certainly describes a process that is more labor intensive, more transparent and puts more legal risk on the adviser involved in the process: however, whether that means better outcomes for consumers is the question, one that is at the heart of the dispute between the financial industry and the [DOL]." (Stephen Rosenberg, The Wagner Law Group)
[Guidance Overview] Final DOL Fiduciary Rule: Higher Bar for Investment Advisors (PDF)
"The final rule identifies some examples of communications that are recommendations, such as recommendations to switch from a commission-based account to an advisory fee based account. The final rule also provides examples of communications that are not recommendations, such as guidelines and other information on proxy voting policies provided to a class of investors, without regard to individual investment interests or policies." (Anderson, Helgen, Davis & Cefalu, PA)
Are Rollover IRAs on the Way Out?
"Keeping more assets in the plan does have its advantages. However, [there are] several important issues related to the stay-over strategy. These include increased costs and fiduciary responsibilities to the plan sponsor for keeping former employees in the plan, as well as additional administrative time and costs.... [P]lan sponsors will need to maintain close contact with retirees still in the plan, keeping on top of address changes, monitoring death notices, and communicating with retirees (or their successors) when making changes to plan provisions or investments. Plan sponsors will also need to establish a process for communicating information conveyed at investment meetings to retirees who are unable to attend." (PenChecks)
You Are Never Too Old to Convert to a Roth IRA
"No matter what your age, you should ask yourself three questions. First, when will the money be needed? Do you need your IRA money immediately for living expenses? If so converting may not be for you. Second, what is your tax rate? If you are retired and your income is lower, that may favor conversion. The third question to ask yourself is whether you have the money to pay the tax on the conversion. It is best to pay the conversion tax from non-IRA funds." (Slott Report)
Banks Strive to Thread DOL Fiduciary Advice Needle in Way That Allows Them to Retain Small Accounts
"A common solution for banks with broker dealer operations is to shift larger clients to the bank's registered investment advisors (RIAs) while offering a robo investment advice solution to smaller accounts that require 'less hand holding' ... Offering only a robo solution will not work for all people with small accounts so banks will need other solutions that provide personal advice[.]" (Mind Over Market)
Who Pays for a Mistake in Your IRA?
"Why are these penalties owed by you, the innocent IRA owner? Because the 'I' in IRA stands for 'individual.' The tax code is structured so that you are totally, 100%, responsible for the correct operation of your IRA.... Employer plan participants may not be at as much risk, but they will be responsible for any amounts distributed to them or that are deemed to be distributed to them." (Slott Report)
Court Finds Debtor's IRA Distribution Is Exempt From Creditors Under Texas Law
"The trustee objected to the debtor's exemption in her IRA, arguing that funds invested in an IRA are only conditionally exempt. According to the trustee, all funds withdrawn from the IRA by the debtor, including the funds withheld for the payment of income taxes, lost their exempt character because of the debtor's failure to use the funds to make a rollover contribution into another exempt retirement account.... Nothing in Section 42.0021(c) requires an account holder to safeguard distributed funds for 60 days or to transfer the funds into another retirement account, the court said.... The exemption doesn't disappear when the account holder receives a distribution, the court said." [In re Moore, No. 15-42046 (Bankr. E.D. Tex. July 6, 2016)] (Bloomberg BNA)
Want to Fund Your HSA with Your IRA? Here's How
"A [Qualified HSA Funding Distribution (QHFD)] is done by direct transfer from your IRA to your HSA. This transaction is not taxable or subject to the 10% early distribution penalty. The amount that can be transferred cannot exceed the amount you are eligible to contribute to your HSA for the year.... The amount you can move will be reduced by any HSA contributions you have already made during the year. You may only do one QHFD in your lifetime. There is an exception to this rule if you start out the year with self-only coverage and then later switch to family coverage." (Slott Report)
How to Take Advantage of a 'Child IRA' Under Current Laws
"The world offers precious few jobs that require only existence, but that newborn baby will have to find them and convince someone to hire him in order to earn the necessary income to start a Child IRA. What kinds of jobs require one to merely sit there and do nothing? Pretty much only one: modeling.... Parents who own businesses and actively advertise represent a special situation. In this situation, maintaining a steady stream of child modeling work may demand less rigor." (Fiduciary News)
Everything You Always Wanted to Know About the Hypothetical 'Child IRA'
"By dialing back the start age to 'new born baby' and investing that $1,000 annual until said baby reaches age 19, we find the value of The Child IRA will have grown to two-and-a-quarter million dollars.... [It] quickly became apparent The Child IRA could easily obviate the need for Social Security.... [Published articles explain how] The Child IRA can become a viable national policy to eventually replace Social Security." (Fiduciary News)
[Official Guidance] Text of PLR 201628006: Required Minimum Distribution Rules Apply to Designated Beneficiary Despite State Court's Post-Mortem Reformation (PDF)
"After Decedent's death, the trustees of the trusts petitioned the Court for a declaratory judgment that would modify the beneficiary designation for IRA X to carry out the original estate plan. Based on its finding of Decedent's intent, the Court ordered that the beneficiaries of IRA X are Trust C as a 50% beneficiary and Trusts D an d E as 25% beneficiaries, consistent with Decedent's prior beneficiary designation. The order was retroactively effective as if such designation were made on the date Decedent signed the beneficiary designation form for IRA X.... [A]lthough the Court order changed the beneficiary of IRA X under State law, the order cannot create a 'designated beneficiary' for purposes of section 401(a)(9)." (Internal Revenue Service [IRS])
[Guidance Overview] DOL Final Investment Advice Regulation's Impact on the Retail Investor Marketplace (PDF)
16 pages. "The purpose of this article is to: [1] provide a summary of the definition of 'investment advice' under the Final Regulation; [2] discuss the impact of the Final Regulation and the prohibited transaction exemptions, particularly the BIC and PTE 84-24, on the distribution of products and services; and [3] provide some recommendations on how to proceed." (Groom Law Group, via The Investment Lawyer)
[Opinion] Conflicted Interpretations Arising from DOL Final Fiduciary Rule
"Was it the DOL's intent to provide incentives for you to apply your AUM fees to a client's cash accounts, so you could comply with the new regs? Do you think the DOL believes you should give up your investment judgment and simply recommend whatever happens to be on the Morningstar list of least expensive options? Don't you think the BICE exemptions were purely and simply an accommodation to product manufacturers who were selling investments that would otherwise be hard to justify as a fiduciary recommendation?" (Bob Veres in Inside Information)
Tips for Drafting Best Interest Contracts Under DOL Rule (PDF)
"In the BIC contract or in a separate single written disclosure provided with the contract, the [financial institution (FI)] must clearly and prominently make certain disclosures. The content of the disclosures will be subject to customization to the FI's particular circumstances. As they apply to IRAs, a few of the disclosures are redundant to other contract terms. So long as the required information is provided clearly and prominently, a single disclosure of particular information is sufficient." (Sutherland Asbill & Brennan LLP)
Planning Opportunities for Non-Spouse Beneficiaries of Inherited Retirement Accounts
"[T]he rules permitting a transfer from an inherited employer retirement plan to an inherited IRA also allow the assets to be shifted to an inherited Roth IRA, effectively giving the beneficiary the option of doing a Roth conversion even after the death of the original account owner. This is a strategy uniquely available to beneficiaries of inherited employer retirement plans, as an inherited IRA may not be converted to a Roth. The caveat, however, is that ... since an inherited Roth IRA (after conversion) still has required minimum distribution obligations, it will usually be preferable to convert any other type of pre-tax retirement account first!" (Michael Kitces in Nerd's Eye View)
[Guidance Overview] Interesting Angles on the DOL's Fiduciary Rule, Part 11
"While the concept of reasonable compensation is old-hat for advisers and service providers to ERISA qualified retirement plans, it has not, by and large, been used in the IRA world.... The DOL explained the concept in a preamble ... 'reasonableness' is defined by free market practices ... in a market where the costs and compensation are transparent and, therefore, where the market is truly competitive.... Benchmarking is on its way to IRAs." (
Retirement Assets Total $24.1 Trillion in First Quarter 2016
"Assets in [IRAs] totaled $7.4 trillion at the end of the first quarter of 2016, an increase of 1.0 percent from the end of the fourth quarter of 2015. [DC] plan assets rose 1.7 percent in the first quarter of 2016 to $6.8 trillion. Government [DB] plans -- including federal, state, and local government plans -- held $5.1 trillion in assets as of the end of March, a 0.8 percent decrease from the end of December. Private-sector DB plans held $2.8 trillion in assets at the end of the first quarter of 2016, and annuity reserves outside of retirement accounts accounted for another $2.0 trillion." (Investment Company Institute [ICI])
[Guidance Overview] The New Fiduciary Regs: A Practical Review, Part 2 (PDF)
"It is clear from the Preamble to the exemption, as well as the exemption terms themselves, that the DOL is trying to structure an environment where the participant remains protected and the advisor acts in the participant's best interests. The DOL approaches this in two ways: on the one hand, forcing the fiduciary to behave within constraints, and on the other, giving a disappointed participant access to litigation as an enforcement mechanism." [Also see Supplement: Best Interest Contract Exemption.] (Ferenczy Benefits Law Center LLP)
[Guidance Overview] The Cold Comfort of the Best Interest Contract Exemption
10 pages. "[T]he BIC Exemption comes at a steep price, imposing extensive compliance costs in the form of new disclosure requirements, as well as new policies and procedures requirements ... The exemption also substantially increases litigation risk by providing IRA and other retirement plan investors ... a new private enforcement right against financial advisers." (Latham & Watkins)
[Guidance Overview] DOL Issues Final Investment Advice Fiduciary Rules (PDF)
16 pages. "Sponsors and fiduciaries of ERISA-governed plans who wish to retain an investment advice fiduciary to advise participants ... need to carefully review the agreements under which those services will be performed to determine if the compensation arrangements or other potential conflicts of interest require reliance on the 'best interest contract' exemption. If so, then the plan fiduciaries would need to determine if the contract or other disclosures provided by the fiduciary meet the requirements of the exemption and to monitor the investment adviser's compliance with the exemption going forward." (Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman LLP)
Interesting Angles on the DOL's Fiduciary Rule, Part 10
"FINRA issued its Regulatory Notice 13-45 in late 2013. As that notice explained, distribution recommendations are investment recommendations (and thus, in the case of FINRA, are subject to the suitability standard), but distribution education is not an investment recommendation.... [M]any RIA firms and broker-dealers adopted a distributions education approach using 13-45 as the model. While the DOL agrees that distribution education is not a fiduciary recommendation, it does not agree that 13-45 is a safe harbor:" (
[Opinion] The Impact of the New Fiduciary Rule on Investors
"[It's] a big retooling for ... been insurance companies, broker-dealers, who now have this different standard to which they are going to be held.... [We're] frankly in a little bit of an awkward regulatory environment because [an investor] could actually work with an advisor who has different regulatory requirements about how good the advice has to be for my IRA account versus my taxable brokerage account, at the same firm with the same advisor.... [That's not] tenable in the long run." (Morningstar)
[Guidance Overview] What Does the DOL Fiduciary Regulatory Package Really Mean for Advisors?
11 pages. "[F]iduciary status does not apply retroactively, so what will that mean for your existing business? ... [D]istribution model structures for making investment recommendations to small-plan sponsors can take on a variety of new forms. What should you consider? ... [W]hat's a reasonable fee? How to best work with other fiduciaries, wholesalers and service providers ...[W]hat should you consider when making investment recommendations?" (Groom Law Group, for Principal Financial Group)
Under New Fiduciary Rule, DOL Has Reason to Pay Attention to Reverse Churning
"[The DOL's] 1,000-plus page fiduciary rule makes only one obscure reference to 'reverse churning.' ... The SEC and Finra have had this regulatory matter on their radar for years.... In a nutshell, reverse churning occurs when an adviser places client assets in an advisory account, charges an ongoing management fee, and gets paid for doing little or nothing thereafter." (InvestmentNews)
Fiduciary Rule's Impact on IRAs Should Be No Surprise (PDF)
"Both ERISA-governed plans and IRAs have been governed by the same fiduciary investment advice for decades. Considering the DOL has since been given rulemaking authority over Code section 4975, it should come as no surprise that IRAs are subject to the same recently issued final rule that also applies to ERISA governed employer retirement plans." (Ascensus)
[Guidance Overview] How to Comply With DOL's Best Interest Standard of Care
"[M]any advisors don't understand how the best interest standard of care will impact their advice to IRAs ... [T]he best interest standard of care duties [can be divided] into two categories: macro and micro. The macro requirement is that the investment products be generally prudent for retirement investors. The micro requirement is that the recommended combination of investment products and services be prudent for the particular retirement investor." (Fred Reish, in ThinkAdvisor)
Rules to Do an IRA Qualified Charitable Distribution
"[O]btaining the tax benefits for doing a QCD from an IRA to a charity requires meeting very specific requirements, including a minimum age limitation, a maximum dollar amount limitation, and contributing to only certain types of eligible (public) charities ... In addition, there is the most stringent requirement -- though also the easiest to satisfy -- that for an IRA distribution to qualify as a QCD, the check cannot be made payable to the IRA owner and instead must be made payable directly to the charitable entity[.]" (Michael Kitces in Nerd's Eye View)
[Opinion] State-Sponsored Retirement Programs for Small Business Employees: Is Government Action Wise?
"Some of the states that are setting up retirement programs for private company workers have a poor track record as evidenced by underfunded pension plans for municipal staff.... It's not clear ... that individuals will have a better level of consumer protection by being part of a state-run program versus setting up an IRA account directly with a reputable financial institution." (Pension Risk Matters)
Third Legal Challenge to DOL Fiduciary Regulation Filed
"ACLI and NAIFA support responsible and balanced regulations that protect the interests of retirement consumers. But the regulation is neither reasonable nor balanced. It has become clear that it will harm the very people it is meant to help. It will harm retirement savers who now, more than ever, need access to the guaranteed lifetime income products -- personal pensions -- offered by ACLI and NAIFA members[.]" [ACLI, NAIFA et al. v. Perez, No. 16-cv-1530 (N.D. Tex. filed June 8, 2016)] (American Council of Life Insurers [ACLI])
Retirement Health Care Costs and Income Replacement Ratios (PDF)
10 pages. "[C]urrent [income replacement ratios], which do not include unexpected out-of-pocket medical expenses, accurate health care inflation rates, life expectancy projections, and Medicare means-testing surcharges, will likely fail to produce sufficient income for retirees to afford quality health care and maintain the standard of living they have planned for.... [W]hile the health care savings gap will be substantial, it can be managed through modest additional contributions to 401(k) plans, HSAs, Roths, annuities, or other products, such as life insurance." (HealthView)
[Opinion] Fiduciary Rule Advances Investors' Interests
"If they cannot document that they serve investors' interests, broker-dealers, 401(k) plan providers, and other retirement advisors face potential private legal actions, including possible class-action lawsuits. (The DOL lacks the statutory authority to bring enforcement actions against retirement advisors, but it can require that they enter into contracts guaranteeing retirement investors the right to sue their advisors and plan providers.) In the 401(k) space, where plan sponsors have long had fiduciary obligations, similar class-action lawsuits have likely pushed down fees to investors, by giving sponsors an incentive to ensure that they are offering the lowest-cost share class for which they are eligible." (Morningstar Advisor)
NAFA Seeks Preliminary Injunction Against DOL Fiduciary Rule (PDF)
"NAFA ... has filed a federal lawsuit in the D.C. District Court challenging the [DOL]'s new 'fiduciary rule.' The lawsuit seeks a preliminary injunction to stay the rule, which is currently scheduled to become operational in April 2017.... The lawsuit alleges the DOL rule is invalid on grounds that the agency exceeded its authority to regulate IRAs and that it improperly categorizes insurance agents as fiduciaries. The lawsuit further alleges that the rule creates a private right of action, which only Congress can do." (National Association for Fixed Annuities [NAFA])
Statement of DOL Secretary Perez on Legal Challenge to Department's Efforts to Ensure Best Interest Retirement Advice (PDF)
"This rulemaking was one of the most deliberate, open regulatory processes in recent memory.... We heard what stakeholders had to say, thoughtfully considered their comments and made improvements to the rule based on their feedback. The department's Conflict of Interest rule is built upon solid statutory and legal foundations, and we will defend it vigorously." (U.S. Department of Labor [DOL])
Lawsuit Filed to Challenge DOL Fiduciary Rule That Prevents Financial Professionals from Best Serving Retirement Savers
"The [DOL]'s new, 1,023-page rule ... creates sweeping changes to existing regulations that will make saving for retirement more difficult for the very same hardworking American families and individuals it claims to protect.... The rule will shackle Main Street financial advisors with extensive new requirements and constant liability, forcing them to limit the options and guidance they provide to retirement savers.... Advisors servicing small business plans will similarly be left with no choice but to limit or stop servicing the retirement plans offered by those job-creators, significantly reducing the retirement savings options available to their millions of employees. These consequences collectively reinforce that government officials failed to perform an adequate cost-benefit analysis during the rule's development." (U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Financial Services Institute, Financial Services Roundtable, Insured Retirement Institute [IRI], Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association [SIFMA], and four Texas business and financial organizations)
Text of Complaint Filed by Employer and Financial Services Organizations Challenging DOL Fiduciary Rule (PDF)
"The SEC has more than eighty years' experience regulating financial markets and services ... and has been specifically charged by Congress with studying the propriety of adopting a uniform fiduciary standard. The [DOL's] authority, by contrast, is more narrowly prescribed and is generally restricted to employee benefit plans. It possesses neither the expertise nor the authority to regulate financial services in a manner that properly balances the needs of retirement savers and small businesses. Because the [DOL] lacks affirmative authority to regulate financial services outside the context of employee benefit plans, it has sought to promulgate this new regulatory regime through its exemptive authority under ERISA. That is, the Department seeks to convert its authority to lift regulatory burdens into a means to impose them, resulting in the most sweeping change in retirement planning since the adoption of ERISA itself. By doing so, the Department has disregarded the regulatory framework established by Congress, exceeded its authority, and assumed for itself regulatory power that is vested in the SEC in ways that will harm retirement savers." [Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al. v. Perez, No. 3:16-cv-01476-G (N.D. Tex. filed June 1, 2016)] (U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas)
Getting Stretch IRA Treatment With an A/B Trust
"[E]ven where the see-through trust rules do allow for the stretch of an inherited IRA, the income tax treatment will often be less favorable than naming beneficiaries outright (due to the compressed trust tax brackets). As a result, anytime an A-B trust is being considered as the beneficiary of an IRA or other retirement account, it's crucial to weigh the non-tax (and potential estate tax) benefits against the likely income tax disadvantages!" (Michael Kitces in Nerd's Eye View)
[Guidance Overview] DOL Rules Target Fiduciary Conflict of Interests
"While the rules discourage abusive activities by avaricious salespeople, they also preclude some appropriate practices and may drive honest advisers out of the market.... [T]he reach of the rule is not limited to investment advisers, plan participants and IRA owners. The rule also may affect plan sponsors and other plan fiduciaries." (Snell & Wilmer)
[Guidance Overview] IRS Issues Final Regs on Allocation of After-Tax Amounts from Roth Accounts
"If disbursements are made from a taxpayer's designated Roth account to the taxpayer and also to the taxpayer's Roth IRA or designated Roth account in a direct rollover, then pre-tax amounts will be allocated first to the direct rollover, rather than being allocated pro rata to each destination. A taxpayer will be able to direct the allocation of pre-tax and after-tax amounts that are included in disbursements from a designated Roth account that are directly rolled over to multiple destinations[.]" (Practical Law Company)
For IRA Investors, a Warning on DOL Fiduciary Rule
"[T]he DOL's 'best interest' rule does indeed represent a substantial 'watering down' of the ERISA standard that covers advice on pension assets, such as 401(k)s, but now doesn't apply to rollovers into IRAs. While the DOL initially sought to close this legal 'loophole,' in the department's willingness to compromise with the securities industry, it has shifted from a strict rules-based approach, with essentially 'no tolerance' for financial conflicts of interest, to a much more lenient 'justify your actions' standard." (ThinkAdvisor)
[Guidance Overview] Simplified 401(k) Roth Rollover Rules Finalized
"The Proposed Rules were just finalized and are effective for distributions on and after January 1, 2016. The final rules do not change the tax treatment of rollovers that were made between September 18, 2014 and January 1, 2016 or the notices provided with respect to those distributions. In fact, the revised notices will be able to continue to be used under the final rules because the proposed changes were adopted substantially without any changes other than clarifying changes." (Winstead PC)
Q&A on the DOL's Fiduciary Rule: Is This Covered?
"HSAs are covered under the new Rule. Are Coverdell IRAs also covered? ... If the SEC comes out with a uniform fiduciary standard, will it trump the DOL ruling? What is the future for taxable accounts and fiduciary advice? ... Will a bank teller's referral of a client to an advisor, and receiving a bonus for doing so, be considered a fiduciary act? ... Under the rule will all retirement investment advisors be ERISA 3(21) fiduciaries with some operating under the BIC exemption?" (fi360)
'Best Interest,' BICE and Class Action Targets, Part 2
"Unless Financial Institutions and their Advisers understand and successfully adapt to the shift from a culture of 'suitability' to the more demanding 'fiduciary/"best interest"/prudence' culture required under the DOL's new fiduciary rule and BICE, the likelihood of successful class actions against them will definitely increase.... [This article addresses] the issue of 401(k) Rollovers and IRAs, variable annuities and equity/fixed index annuities." (The Prudent Investment Adviser Rules)
[Guidance Overview] The DOL's 2016 Final Fiduciary and Conflict of Interest Rule: Why Challenges to the DOL's Authority to Regulate the IRS Will Fail
"Has the [DOL] exceeded its authority by regulating rollovers to, and investments in, [IRAs] and other tax-favored accounts under the Internal Revenue Code that are not subject to regulation under [ERISA]? ... [S]ome commentators expect the financial services industry to seek to overturn these rules in the courts ... Should such a challenge materialize, however, [the authors] are of the view that it would fail -- at least to the extent that the challenge is based on the lack of authority on the part of the [DOL] to regulate IRAs." (Mintz Levin)
'Best Interest,' BICE and Class Action Targets
"[T]here are six areas that will face the most scrutiny and potential class action litigation under the DOL's new fiduciary rule and BICE: [1] Actively managed mutual funds; [2] Closet index funds; [3] Brokerage 'preferred provider' programs; [4] 401(k) rollovers and IRAs accounts; [5] Variable annuities; [5] Equity indexed annuities." (The Prudent Investment Adviser Rules)
[Official Guidance] Text of IRS Final Regs: Removal of Allocation Rule for Disbursements from Designated Roth Accounts to Multiple Destinations
8 pages. "This document contains final regulations eliminating the requirement that each disbursement from a designated Roth account that is directly rolled over to an eligible retirement plan be treated as a separate distribution from any amount paid directly to the employee and therefore separately subject to the rule in section 72(e)(2) ... allocating pretax and after-tax amounts to each distribution. As a result of this change, if disbursements are made from a taxpayer's designated Roth account to the taxpayer and also to the taxpayer's Roth IRA or designated Roth account in a direct rollover, then pretax amounts will be allocated first to the direct rollover, rather than being allocated pro rata to each destination. Also, a taxpayer will be able to direct the allocation of pretax and after-tax amounts that are included in disbursements from a designated Roth account that are directly rolled over to multiple destinations, applying the same allocation rules to distributions from designated Roth accounts that apply to distributions from other types of accounts." (Internal Revenue Service [IRS])
[Guidance Overview] More DOL Final Fiduciary Rule Fallout: Some Potential IRS Pitfalls for IRA Custodians and Trustees
"For IRA custodians and trustees using prototype custodial or trust agreements that have been submitted and approved by the IRS, ... any changes made to prototype agreements are submitted to the IRS for approval ... [B]ecause the prototype IRA custodial and trust agreements have generally not been required to be updated for changes in the law since 2002, the IRS may require any prototypes submitted that have not been updated to be updated for law changes before approval." (Morgan Lewis)
Retirement Funds and Business Start-Ups: Do 'ROBS' Work?
"The IRS zeros in on two primary concerns ... [1] [If] the ROBS 401(k) plan is set up in a way that permits only the business owner to invest his 401(k) plan account in company stock, it may discriminate against any rank and file employees who qualify to participate in the plan.... [2] [T]he new 401(k) plan is prohibited by law from paying more for the shell corporation's stock than the fair value of its business. Is a start-up franchise business, for example, really equal in initial value to the amount of its substantial up front franchise fee and other start-up costs -- before it has generated even one dollar of revenue? Questionable, and remember it's your burden to establish that value in the unfortunate event the IRS comes calling." (Golan & Christie LLP)
The Final Fiduciary Rule: How the Labor Department Brought the Internal Revenue Service Wolf to the RIA Door
"If the DOL writes a rule, is it really a regulation at all if nobody is there to enforce it other than a bunch of freelancing tort lawyers? It's a metaphysical and legal questions that hangs over the [DOL's] imposition of fiduciary responsibility over IRA assets where it has no jurisdiction to mete out justice against financial advisors who put their own interests ahead of clients. It's the [IRS] that oversees Individual Retirement Accounts. So what gives?" (RIABiz)
How Many IRAs Should You Have?
"If you have a Roth IRA and a traditional IRA, they obviously must be in separate accounts. If you own an IRA you established for yourself and an inherited IRA, those cannot be combined. In fact, you cannot combine an IRA you inherited from one decedent with an IRA you inherited from another decedent. If you have a business that contributes to a SEP-IRA, the SEP-IRA must be separate from your other traditional IRAs.... There are three reasons offered for keeping your rollover IRAs 'pure' and uncontaminated by 'regular' contributions -- but only one of those reasons is valid! ... There is an unlimited bankruptcy exemption for (noninherited) rollover IRAs. The exemption for 'contributory' IRAs is very generous but not unlimited." (Natalie Choate, in Morningstar Advisor)

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